:

import warnings
warnings.simplefilter(action='ignore', category=FutureWarning)

import numpy as np
import pandas as pd
from scipy.stats import ttest_ind
import pymc3 as pm
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
%matplotlib inline
import seaborn as sns
sns.set_style('ticks')
sns.set_context('paper')

import glambox as gb


# Example 2: Hierarchical parameter estimation in cases with limited data¶

In some research settings, the total amount of data one can collect per individual is limited, conflicting with the large amounts of data required to obtain reliable and precise individual parameter estimates from diffusion models (see for example, Lerche at al. (2017) and Voss et al. (2013)). Hierarchical modeling can offer a solution to this problem. Here, each individual’s parameter estimates are assumed to be drawn from a group level distribution. Thereby, during parameter estimation, individual parameter estimates are informed by the data of the entire group. This can greatly improve parameter estimation, especially in the face of limited amounts of data (see for example Ratcliff & Childers (2015) and Wiecki et al. (2013)). In this example, we will simulate a clinical application setting, in which different patient groups are to be compared on the strengths of their gaze biases, during a simple value-based choice task that includes eye tracking. It is reasonable to assume that the amount of data that can be collected in such a setting is limited on at least two accounts:

• The number of patients available for the experiment might be low
• The number of trials that can be performed by each participant might be low, for clinical reasons (e.g., patients feel exhausted more quickly, time to perform tests is limited, etc.)

Therefore, we simulate a dataset with a low number of individuals within each group (between 5 and 15 per group), and a low number of trials per participant (50 trials). We then estimate model parameters in a hierarchical fashion, and compare the group level gaze bias parameter estimates between groups.

## 1. Simulating Data¶

We simulate data of three patient groups ($$N_1$$ = 5, $$N_2$$ = 10, $$N_3$$ = 15), with 50 trials per individual, in a simple three item value-based choice task, where participants are instructed to simply choose the item they like the best. These numbers are roughly based on a recent clinical study on the role of the prefrontal cortex in fixation-dependent value representations (Vaidya & Fellows (2015)). Here, the authors found no systematic differences between frontal lobe patients and controls on integration speed or the decision threshold, controlling speed-accuracy trade-offs. Therefore, in our example we only let the gaze bias parameter $$\gamma$$ differ systematically between the groups, with means of $$\gamma_{1}$$ = 0.7 (weak gaze bias), $$\gamma_{2}$$ = 0.1 (moderate gaze bias) and $$\gamma_{3}$$ = −0.5 (strong gaze bias), respectively. We do not assume any other systematic differences between the groups and sample all other model parameters from the estimates obtained from fitting the model to the data of Krajbich & Rangel (2011).

:

## Load Krajbich & Rangel (2011) dataset estimates from Thomas, Molter et al. (2019)
kr2011 = estimates.loc[estimates['dataset'] == 'krajbich2011']

:

subject dataset v gamma s tau
39 39 krajbich2011 1.207348 0.389116 0.227103 0.354587
40 40 krajbich2011 0.633304 0.353474 0.279450 0.622022
41 41 krajbich2011 0.737201 0.814595 0.282122 0.787967
42 42 krajbich2011 0.800456 -0.154669 0.328268 1.505673
43 43 krajbich2011 0.627823 0.658645 0.219142 0.549583
:

np.random.seed(1751)

groups = ['group1', 'group2', 'group3']

# Sample sizes
N = dict(group1=5,
group2=10,
group3=15)

# Mean gaze bias parameters for each group
gamma_mu = dict(group1=0.7,     # weak bias
group2=0.1,     # medium-strong bias
group3=-0.5)    # very strong bias with leak

# Sample parameter sets from KR2011 estimates
group_idx = {group: np.random.choice(kr2011.index, size=N[group], replace=False)
for group in groups}
v = {group: kr2011.loc[group_idx[group], 'v'].values
for group in groups}
s = {group: kr2011.loc[group_idx[group], 's'].values
for group in groups}
tau = {group: kr2011.loc[group_idx[group], 'tau'].values
for group in groups}

# Draw normally distributed gaze bias parameters (truncated to be ≤ 1)
gamma = dict(group1=np.clip(np.random.normal(loc=gamma_mu['group1'], scale=0.3, size=N['group1']), a_min=None, a_max=1),
group2=np.clip(np.random.normal(loc=gamma_mu['group2'], scale=0.2, size=N['group2']), a_min=None, a_max=1),
group3=np.clip(np.random.normal(loc=gamma_mu['group3'], scale=0.3, size=N['group3']), a_min=None, a_max=1))

# Set the number of trials and items in the task
n_trials = 50
n_items  = 3

# Simulate the data using GLAM
glam = gb.GLAM()
for g, group in enumerate(groups):
glam.simulate_group(kind='individual',
n_individuals=N[group],
n_trials=n_trials,
n_items=n_items,
parameters=dict(v=v[group],
gamma=gamma[group],
s=s[group],
tau=tau[group],
t0=np.zeros(N[group])),
label=group,
seed=g)

data = glam.data.copy()
data.rename({'condition': 'group'}, axis=1, inplace=True)
data.to_csv('examples/example_2/data/data.csv', index=False)

:

subject trial repeat choice rt item_value_0 gaze_0 item_value_1 gaze_1 item_value_2 gaze_2 group
0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.266691 5 0.459175 0 0.379466 3 0.161359 group1
1 0.0 1.0 0.0 2.0 1.189464 3 0.389115 7 0.189588 9 0.421297 group1
2 0.0 2.0 0.0 1.0 1.709817 3 0.269665 5 0.409055 2 0.321280 group1

The resulting distribution of data generating parameters looks as follows:

:

from string import ascii_uppercase

fontsize = 7
n_bins = 10

fig, axs = plt.subplots(4, 4, figsize=gb.plots.cm2inch(18, 9), sharex='col', dpi=330)

for p, (parameter, parameter_name, bins) in enumerate(
zip([v, s, gamma, tau],
[r'$v$', r'$\sigma$', r'$\gamma$', r'$\tau$'],
[np.linspace(0, 2, n_bins + 1),
np.linspace(0, 0.5, n_bins + 1),
np.linspace(-2, 1, n_bins + 1),
np.linspace(0, 2, n_bins + 1)])):

# Pooled
axs[0, p].hist(np.concatenate([parameter[group] for group in groups]),
bins=bins,
color='black',
alpha=0.5)
axs[0, p].set_ylim(0, 20)
axs[0, p].set_yticks([0, 10, 20])
axs[0, p].set_title(parameter_name, fontsize=fontsize, fontweight='bold')
if p == 0:
axs[0, p].set_ylabel(r'$\bf{Pooled}$' + '\n\nFreq.', fontsize=fontsize)

# Groups
for g, group in enumerate(groups):
axs[g + 1, p].hist(parameter[group],
bins=bins,
color='C{}'.format(g),
alpha=0.7)
axs[g + 1, p].set_ylim(0, 1)
axs[g + 1, p].set_yticks([0, 5, 10])
if p == 0:
axs[g + 1, p].set_ylabel(r'$\bf{Group}$ ' + r'$\bf{{{g}}}$'.format(g=(g + 1)) + '\n\nFreq.',
fontsize=fontsize)

axs[g + 1, p].set_xlabel(parameter_name, fontsize=fontsize)

for ax, letter in zip(axs.ravel(), ascii_uppercase):
# Show ticklabels, despite sharey=True
ax.xaxis.set_tick_params(labelbottom=True)
ax.yaxis.set_tick_params(labelbottom=True)
ax.tick_params(axis='both', which='major', labelsize=fontsize)

sns.despine()

plt.savefig('examples/example_2/figures/generating_parameters.png', dpi=330) ## 2. Exploring behavioural differences¶

Behavioural differences between the three groups are plotted below, using the plot_behaviour_aggregate function from the plots module. Group-level summary tables can be created using the aggregate_group_level_data from the analysis module. Even though the groups only differ in the gaze bias parameter $$\gamma$$, they also exhibit differences in RT (Group 1 mean ± s.d. = 1.96 ± 0.33 s, Group 2 mean ± s.d. = 2.38 ± 1.4 s; Group 3 mean ± s.d. = 2.59 ± 1.26 ms; A) and choice accuracy (Group 1 mean ± s.d. = 0.88 ± 0.06, Group 2 mean ± s.d. = 0.71 ± 0.07, Group 3 mean ± s.d. = 0.50 ± 0.16; B). As is to be expected, we can also observe behavioural differences in gaze influence measure (Group 1 mean ± s.d. = 0.08 ± 0.07, Group 2 mean ± s.d. = 0.26 ± 0.11, Group 3 mean ± s.d. = 0.38 ± 0.11; C-D, where the choices of Group 3 are driven by gaze more than those of the other groups.

:

parameters = ['v', 'gamma', 's', 'tau']
comparisons=[('group1', 'group2'),
('group1', 'group3'),
('group2', 'group3')]

for p, parameter in zip([v, gamma, s, tau], ['v', 'gamma', 's', 'tau']):
print(parameter)
for comparison in comparisons:
g1, g2 = comparison
print('{} vs {}\t'.format(g1, g2), ttest_ind(p[g1], p[g2]))

v
group1 vs group2         Ttest_indResult(statistic=-0.3063071158648262, pvalue=0.7642213460655614)
group1 vs group3         Ttest_indResult(statistic=0.5357661157553092, pvalue=0.5986787412351837)
group2 vs group3         Ttest_indResult(statistic=0.9437792037490204, pvalue=0.35509174773278895)
gamma
group1 vs group2         Ttest_indResult(statistic=6.4021176850791575, pvalue=2.3355862858023058e-05)
group1 vs group3         Ttest_indResult(statistic=6.8208382105890335, pvalue=2.193832426730825e-06)
group2 vs group3         Ttest_indResult(statistic=4.837346716941595, pvalue=6.985175866537608e-05)
s
group1 vs group2         Ttest_indResult(statistic=0.8636132045092535, pvalue=0.4034531813427481)
group1 vs group3         Ttest_indResult(statistic=0.004104731012479496, pvalue=0.9967700581739689)
group2 vs group3         Ttest_indResult(statistic=-0.8970137843731146, pvalue=0.37900526220793296)
tau
group1 vs group2         Ttest_indResult(statistic=-0.8378245121922042, pvalue=0.417267319030197)
group1 vs group3         Ttest_indResult(statistic=-1.6166494748100346, pvalue=0.12334443855331839)
group2 vs group3         Ttest_indResult(statistic=-0.8993267331462613, pvalue=0.3777982033456534)

:

data.groupby('group').apply(gb.analysis.aggregate_group_level_data, n_items=n_items)

:

mean std min max se iqr
group
group1 Mean RT 1.960980 0.326799 1.531284 2.503894 0.163400 0.304160
P(choose best) 0.876000 0.062482 0.760000 0.920000 0.031241 0.060000
Gaze Influence 0.077391 0.066525 -0.005919 0.142432 0.033263 0.133686
group2 Mean RT 2.381671 1.402121 1.238400 5.187776 0.467374 0.336601
P(choose best) 0.706000 0.065146 0.600000 0.800000 0.021715 0.100000
Gaze Influence 0.255080 0.112799 0.103472 0.440610 0.037600 0.174701
group3 Mean RT 2.588283 1.256759 1.240456 6.318852 0.335883 0.872888
P(choose best) 0.498667 0.155857 0.280000 0.820000 0.041655 0.200000
Gaze Influence 0.382977 0.112599 0.144232 0.652829 0.030093 0.122224
:

gb.plots.plot_behaviour_aggregate(bar_data=data,
line_data=[data.loc[data['group'] == group] for group in groups],
line_labels=['Group 1', 'Group 2', 'Group 3'],
value_bins=7, gaze_bins=7,
limits=dict(rt=(0, 5)));
sns.despine()
plt.savefig('examples/example_2/figures/aggregate_data.png', dp=330) ## 3. Building the hierarchical model¶

When specifying the hierarchical model, we allow all model parameters to differ between the three groups. This way, we will subsequently be able to address the question whether individuals from different groups differ on one or more model parameters (including the gaze bias parameter $$\gamma$$, which we are mainly interested in here).

As for the individual models, we first initialize the model object using the GLAM class and supply it with the behavioural data using the data argument. Here, we set the model kind 'hierarchical' (in contrast to 'individual'. Further, we specify that each model parameter can vary between groups (referring to a 'group' variable in the data):

:

hglam = gb.GLAM(data=data)
hglam.make_model(kind='hierarchical',
depends_on=dict(v='group',
gamma='group',
s='group',
tau='group'))

Generating hierarchical model for 30 subjects...


In this model, each parameter is set up hierarchically within each group, so that individual estimates are informed by other individuals in that group. If the researcher does not expect group differences on a parameter, this parameter can simply be omitted from the depends_on dictionary. The resulting model would then have a hierarchical setup of this parameter across groups, so that individual parameter estimates were informed by all other individuals (not only those in the same group).

## 4. Parameter estimation¶

After the model is built, the next step is to perform statistical inference over its parameters. As we have done with the individual models, we can use MCMC to approximate the parameters’ posterior distributions (see the Methods Section of the manuscript for details). Due to the more complex structure and drastically increased number of parameters, the chains from the hierarchical model usually have higher levels autocorrelation. To still obtain a reasonable number of effective samples (Kurschke (2014), we increase the number of tuning- and draw steps:

:

np.random.seed(1142)
hglam.fit(method='MCMC',
draws=20000,
tune=20000,
chains=4,
random_seed=1142)

Fitting 1 model(s) using MCMC...
Fitting model 1 of 1...

Multiprocess sampling (4 chains in 4 jobs)
CompoundStep
>Metropolis: [tau_group3]
>Metropolis: [tau_group2]
>Metropolis: [tau_group1]
>Metropolis: [tau_group3_sd]
>Metropolis: [tau_group2_sd]
>Metropolis: [tau_group1_sd]
>Metropolis: [tau_group3_mu]
>Metropolis: [tau_group2_mu]
>Metropolis: [tau_group1_mu]
>Metropolis: [s_group3]
>Metropolis: [s_group2]
>Metropolis: [s_group1]
>Metropolis: [s_group3_sd]
>Metropolis: [s_group2_sd]
>Metropolis: [s_group1_sd]
>Metropolis: [s_group3_mu]
>Metropolis: [s_group2_mu]
>Metropolis: [s_group1_mu]
>Metropolis: [gamma_group3]
>Metropolis: [gamma_group2]
>Metropolis: [gamma_group1]
>Metropolis: [gamma_group3_sd]
>Metropolis: [gamma_group2_sd]
>Metropolis: [gamma_group1_sd]
>Metropolis: [gamma_group3_mu]
>Metropolis: [gamma_group2_mu]
>Metropolis: [gamma_group1_mu]
>Metropolis: [v_group3]
>Metropolis: [v_group2]
>Metropolis: [v_group1]
>Metropolis: [v_group3_sd]
>Metropolis: [v_group2_sd]
>Metropolis: [v_group1_sd]
>Metropolis: [v_group3_mu]
>Metropolis: [v_group2_mu]
>Metropolis: [v_group1_mu]
Sampling 4 chains: 100%|██████████| 160000/160000 [54:12<00:00, 49.20draws/s]
The estimated number of effective samples is smaller than 200 for some parameters.

/!\ Automatically setting parameter precision...

:

# saving the hierarchical parameter estimates
hglam.estimates.to_csv('examples/example_2/results/estimates.csv', index=False)


Check for convergence, using the Rhat measure and number of effective samples:

:

variables = [v for v in hglam.trace.varnames
if not v.endswith('__')
and not v in ['b', 'p_error', 't0']]


:

mean sd mc_error hpd_2.5 hpd_97.5 n_eff Rhat
v_group1_mu 0.655545 0.091426 0.001239 0.471340 0.837252 6536.876639 1.000135
v_group2_mu 0.695481 0.120024 0.001420 0.456701 0.935323 9496.736263 1.000189
v_group3_mu 0.614757 0.076902 0.000935 0.468496 0.773918 7983.230317 1.000011
v_group1_sd 0.167254 0.105907 0.001861 0.041294 0.383618 3369.765623 1.000453
v_group2_sd 0.364104 0.104120 0.001371 0.198576 0.573141 6578.210532 1.000039

Let’s also take a look at the traces for visual inspection:

:

variables = [v for v in variables
if v.endswith('_mu')
or v.endswith('_sd')]

gb.plots.traceplot(hglam.trace,
varnames=variables,
# specify data generating reference values (vertical lines)
ref_val=dict(v_group1_mu=v['group1'].mean(),
v_group2_mu=v['group2'].mean(),
v_group3_mu=v['group3'].mean(),
gamma_group3_mu=gamma['group3'].mean(),
gamma_group1_mu=gamma['group1'].mean(),
gamma_group2_mu=gamma['group2'].mean(),
s_group3_mu=s['group3'].mean(),
s_group1_mu=s['group1'].mean(),
s_group2_mu=s['group2'].mean(),
tau_group3_mu=tau['group3'].mean(),
tau_group1_mu=tau['group1'].mean(),
tau_group2_mu=tau['group2'].mean()))

plt.savefig('examples/example_2/figures/traceplot.png', dpi=330)
sns.despine() ## 5. Evaluating parameter estimates, interpreting results¶

After sampling is finished, and the chains were checked for convergence (see above), we can turn back to the research question: Do the groups differ with respect to their gaze biases?

Questions about differences between group-level parameters can be addressed by inspecting their posterior distributions. For example, the probability that the mean $$\gamma_{1,\mu}$$ for Group 1 is larger than the mean $$\gamma_{2,\mu}$$ of Group 2 is given by the proportion of posterior samples in which this was the case.

GLAMbox includes a compare_parameters function that plots posterior distributions of group level parameters. Additionally, the user can specify a list of comparisons between groups or conditions. If comparisons are specified, the posterior distributions of their difference and corresponding relevant statistics are added to the figure:

:

from glambox.plots import compare_parameters

parameters = ['v', 'gamma', 's', 'tau']
comparisons = [('group1', 'group2'),
('group1', 'group3'),
('group2', 'group3')]

compare_parameters(model=hglam,
parameters=parameters,
comparisons=comparisons);

plt.savefig('examples/example_2/figures/node_comparison.png', dpi=330) With the resulting plot (see above), the researcher can infer that the groups did not differ with respect to their mean velocity parameters $$v_{i,\mu}$$ (A; top row, pairwise comparisons), mean accumulation noise $$\sigma_{i,\mu}$$ (C; third row), or scaling parameters $$\tau_{i,\mu}$$ (D; fourth row). The groups differ, however, in the strength of their mean gaze bias $$\gamma_{i,\mu}$$ (B; second row): All differences between the groups were statistically meaningful (as inferred by the fact that the corresponding 95% HPD did not contain zero; B, second row, columns 2-4).

## 6. References¶

• Krajbich, I., & Rangel, A. (2011). Multialternative drift-diffusion model predicts the relationship between visual fixations and choice in value-based decisions. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 108(33), 13852-13857.
• Kruschke, J. (2014). Doing Bayesian data analysis: A tutorial with R, JAGS, and Stan. Academic Press.
• Lerche, V., Voss, A., & Nagler, M. (2017). How many trials are required for parameter estimation in diffusion modeling? A comparison of different optimization criteria. Behavior Research Methods, 49(2), 513-537.
• Ratcliff, R., & Childers, R. (2015). Individual differences and fitting methods for the two-choice diffusion model of decision making. Decision, 2(4), 237.
• Vaidya, A. R., & Fellows, L. K. (2015). Testing necessary regional frontal contributions to value assessment and fixation-based updating. Nature communications, 6, 10120.
• Voss, A., Nagler, M., & Lerche, V. (2013). Diffusion models in experimental psychology. Experimental psychology.
• Wiecki, T. V., Sofer, I., & Frank, M. J. (2013). HDDM: Hierarchical Bayesian estimation of the drift-diffusion model in Python. Frontiers in neuroinformatics, 7, 14.